~ Useful Links ~



~ Continental Drift Theory ~

We didn't always know that continents move,

or that the Earth's crust is broken into tectonic plates.

The Earth's CRUST is cracked into 7 Major and 7+ Minor Plates


Click here: Scrat's Continental Crack Up

~ An Atlas of the Puzzle-Fit World ~

1570: Atlas of the World by Abraham Ortelius

( first to notice the "puzzle-fit" of the continents )

~ Continental Drift and Pangaea ~

Alfred Lothar Wegener, Germany (1880 - 1930)

As a school child, Alfred Wegener also noticed the PUZZLE FIT of the continents.

While recovering from WWI injuries in a hospital, he developed his idea of continental drift.

There was a mystery to be solved!

Did the continents once fit together? Prove it.

Alfred Wegener traveled the world by land and sea, and noticed...

...matching rocks and fossils on distant coastlines.

Wegener's Published a Book about his Discoveries:

The Origin of Continents and Oceans (1910)

Alfred Wegener proposed that today's continents once fit together

to form a supercontinent called: Urkontinent

(later named Pangaea)

Animation Above: The Separation of Pangaea

Alfred Wegener noticed the "puzzle-fit" of the continents...

...but, Alfred Wegener couldn't figure out WHY the continents drift!!!

He was actually LAUGHED AT when he presented his theory to fellow scientists!

Wegener's ideas were not accepted by other scientists of his day,

because he didn't have access to SONAR or SUBMARINE technology.

We had to wait until Plate Tectonics Theory was developed in the early 1960's.

Click here: Alfred Wegener Song / The Life and Death of Wegener

Wegener died not knowing that others would eventually believe his theory :-(

Note the location of Massachusetts in Pangaea.

It was connected to Morocco in Africa.

The Life of Wegener

Annenburg Interactive Drift

300 Years of FF in 300 Seconds

Zero Population Growth // Population

Pangaea Then & Now / Drift in 2 Minutes

Continental Drift Animations / Pangaea Name Game

All About Plate Movement / Scrat's Continental Adventure

Supercontinent Pangaea / A Pangaea Animation / More Animations

Mountain Maker-Earth Shaker Activities / Continental Drift Animation

~ Plant and Animal Territorial Zones of Pangaea ~

Pangaea: Animal Habitat Zones


Below: Mesosaurus Fossil

Below: Mesosaurus ("Middle Reptile")

Below: Cynognathus Skull Fossil

Below: Cynognathus ("Dog Jaw Reptile")

Below: Lystrosaurus Skull Fossil

Above and below: Lystrosaurus ("Shovel Mouth Reptile")

Below: Pangaean Fossil Distribution Map


Above and Below: Glossopteris Leaf Fossils

Below: Glossopteris Tree

Lystrosaurus and Glossopteris

Below: Pangaean Landscape Scene


~ Pre-Wegener Explanation for Fossil Distribution ~

Geologists (falsely) believed that the continents were once connected by

"Land Bridges"

which have since sunken under the oceans.

...similar to modern land bridges: Panama

...or past frozen land bridges: Beringia

~ Matching Rock Types and Tropical Coal Distribution ~

Note the matching rock types when the continents are reassembled as Pangaea.

Coal is a black rock made from swampy, tropical plants that were buried underground, decayed, and eventually turned into solid rock. Take note of the locations of "tropical" coal deposits on the map above. (In now temperate regions)

Below: Original Pangaean Coal Deposits in the "Gray Band"


~ Distribution of Glacial Deposits in Pangaea ~

Take note of glacial zones during Pangaea

and compare them to the locations of glacial deposits at present (upper box).


Above & Below: Pangaea




Below: Past, Present and Future Landmass Locations

Click here: Map of the Future Supercontinent: "Pangaea Ultima"

The Average Rate of Plate Motion:

2.5 cm/year = Rate of Fingernail Growth


~ The Pangaean Superocean ~

Note the location below of:


Above: Pangaea (250 million years ago)

FYI: The supercontinent Pangaea started to break apart about 225 million years ago.

FYI: Pangaea first split into northern LAURASIA and southern GONDWANALAND.


FYI: Before Pangaea, there was another supercontinent called Rodinia.



What Alfred Wegener didn't know...

Plate Tectonics: Why do plates move?

Q: What is the cause of crustal plate movement?

A: Convection Currents in the Mantle (and Sea Floor Spreading).