~ Useful Links ~



~ Photo Credits ~

Clip Art:








~ Earth Layers ~

Question: How is Earth like an Egg or Apple?


How is Earth like an Avocado?


Click here: The Egg Song / The Apple Song

Click here: Layers of the Earth Rap / Throw your Hands Up Song

Question: How is "Egg in a Basket" like the Earth?

Egg in a Basket

Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle and Crust

British "Toad in the Hole" (below):

>>> Yorkshire Pudding (crust), Sausage (core), Onion Gravy (mantle) <<<

Earth Layer Cake:

~ An Overview of the Layers of the Earth ~



  • Iron and Nickel
  • Magnetic
  • Solid



  • Iron and Nickel
  • Magnetic
  • Liquid
  • Cause of Earth's Magnetic Field



  • Aesthenosphere
  • Soft/Magma
  • Exhibits "Plasticity"
  • Convection Currents


  • Lithosphere
  • Rigid/Solid
  • Moho Boundary


  • Dark-Colored
  • Rock Sample: Basalt
  • More Dense
  • Fine-Textured
  • Thin Layer



  • Light-Colored
  • Rock Sample: Granite
  • Less Dense
  • Coarse-Textured
  • Thick Layer


Earth's Interior Layers (Mass and Volume):

< 1%
< 1%

Click here: Annenburg Interactive > Earth's Interior

~ The Earth's Crust ~

Continental Crust: 40 - 70 km thick / Density = 2.7 gm/cm3
Oceanic Crust: 5 km thick / Density = 3.0 gm/cm3
Upper Mantle: 660 km thick / Density = 3.3 gm/cm3

Crustal Rocks:

Granite ( Continental ) and Basalt ( Oceanic )

Lithosphere: Rigid Upper Mantle and Lower Crust

Aesthenosphere: Soft, Flowing Middle to Upper Mantle

Moho: Transition between the Crust and Mantle

Click here: The Mohorovicic Discontinuity / Andrija Mohorovicic

~ Magma vs. Lava ~

Magma: Molten (Melted) Rock that is UNDERGROUND

Lava: Molten (Melted) Magma that has Reached the SURFACE of the Earth

FYI: Volcanoes bring magma from the mantle to the surface.

Geothermal Energy:

Harnessing Heat from the Earth

Question: How does Earth's temperature change as depth increases?

Below: Geothermal Energy Power Plant

Click here: Geothermal Energy / Learn More

~ Plasticity in the Mantle ~


( the ability of a solid to flow like a liquid )


( an internal property of a fluid that offers a resistance to flow )

Non-Newtonian Fluid:

( a fluid that experiences a rise in viscosity when pressure is applied )

Thanks Matthew M. Pool of Oobleck

Click here: Oobleck Song / Slo Mo Guys Oobleck Style

Click here: Seussville / All About Oobleck / Other Slimy Recipes

Click here: Pool of Oobleck / Ellen Pool / Ninja Oobleck Mythbusters

Click here: Creeping Oobleck on a Subwoofer / More Subwoofer Action

Oobleck simulates "Plasticity" in the Mantle:

* Under Conditions of High Temperature ~~~> flowing liquid

* Under Conditions of High Pressure ===> rigid solid

Oobleck Recipe: 3 cups Corn Starch + 1 cup Water

(optional: food coloring)


Oobleck Rules and Regulations:

1. Do NOT get any oobleck on the floor, chairs or clothing.

2. Do NOT let the oobleck go past your wrist when handling it.

3. Do NOT throw oobleck through the air.

4. Do NOT taste/eat the oobleck.



Oobleck Ingredients:

( Corn Starch & Water )

Click here: What is Cornstarch?

1. Pour a large Oobleck "pancake" onto the tabletop in front of you.

2. Quickly "slap" the top surface of the Oobleck to see if it splashes.

3. Push your index finger through the pancake very, very s-l-o-w-l-y, with light pressure.

4. Push your index finger through the pancake very quickly like a bulldozer, with a lot of pressure.

>> How did the Oobleck behave differently in step #3 and step #4?

5. Rub your hand over the Oobleck pancake in a circular pattern as if you are "polishing" the surface.

>> Then...suddenly STOP moving your hand when it is in the center of the Oobleck pancake, and let your hand sink down into the Oobleck.

6. Breathe on your hand in front of your face to feel the warmth of your breath.

>> Then, breathe onto the top surface of the Oobleck.

>> Now, blow onto the top of the Oobleck to try to create ripples on the surface.

7. Pushing inward rapidly, pick up the pancake of Oobleck off the tabletop and place it into the cupped palm of your hand.

>> Let the warmth from your hand liquify the Oobleck so that it drips down through your separated fingers onto the tabletop.

8. Pick up the pancake of Oobleck again, and this time form it into a ball by passing it back and forth between your two hands.

>> Then, let the ball drop onto the tabletop and watch it ooze back into a flat pancake puddle.

9. Encircle both of your hands around the sides of the Oobleck pancake, and push inward.

>> Notice the converging oobleck form into a mini folded mountain range.

>> Keep pushing inward until it flows over your hands.

10. Pick up some Oobleck, and rapidly squeeze it between your fist and/or fingertips, then release, then squeeze and release, squeeze and release.

11. Separate the fingers of both hands, and "play piano" on the top surface of the Oobleck.

>> Notice how it feels as if there are hard, little pebbles under each finger as you press down on the Oobleck.

12. To clean up, wash your hands in the BUCKET outside on the balcony.

>> Then, dry your hands inside with a paper towel.


How does Oobleck behave under conditions of:

A. Low Pressure

B. High Pressure

C. Low Temperature

D. High Temperature


~ All About Heat Transfer ~

Heat Transfer / Conduction & Convection & Radiation

Click here: Learn about Conduction, Convection and Radiation

~ Convection Currents in the Mantle ~

Hot matter rises, then cools, and sinks.

Circular "Convection Currents" in the Mantle

Peace, Love and Lava Lamps:

Click Here: Groovy Lava Lamp Video

Click Here: Make your own Lava Lamp / How a Convection Lamp Works

Click here: Mantle Convection Video Clips / Video / Fishtank Convection

Q: What is the source of movement in the Earth's crust?

A: Convection Currents in the Mantle.

NOTE: Convection Currents in the Mantle

are driven by HEAT from the Earth's Core.

The Earth's Core:

Click here: Earth's Core / Magnetism

~ Investigating the Inside of the Earth ~



Fun Fact About Holes:

Scientists have only drilled 14.16 kilometers (8.8 miles) into the Earth.

Learn More: Deepest Hole / Gravity Express Train / Superdeep Borehole




The Earth's Interior

Question: How do scientists determine what the LOWER CRUST and MANTLE is like if we have never drilled down that deep?

Answer: DIRECT evidence from ROCK SAMPLES.

ROCK SAMPLES (A): Deep oceanic and continental crust can become exposed at the surface through uplifting and erosion of the land at the site of MOUNTAINS.

ROCK SAMPLES (B): Magma from the mantle is brought to the surface as lava at the site of VOLCANOES.