~ Useful Link ~



~ Photo Credits ~

Clip Art:








~ Earth Layers ~

Question: How is Earth like an Egg or Apple?



Click here: The Egg Song / The Apple Song

Click here: Layers of the Earth Rap / Throw your Hands Up Song

Question: How is "Toad in the Hole" like the Earth?

..Toad.. in the Hole

Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle and CRUST

British Toad in the Hole: Yorkshire Pudding, Sausage, Onion Gravy

~ An Overview of the Layers of the Earth ~



  • Iron and Nickel
  • Magnetic
  • Solid



  • Iron and Nickel
  • Magnetic
  • Liquid
  • Cause of Earth's Magnetic Field



  • Aesthenosphere
  • Soft/Magma
  • Exhibits "Plasticity"
  • Convection Currents


  • Lithosphere
  • Rigid/Solid
  • Moho Boundary


  • Dark-Colored
  • Rock Sample: Basalt
  • More Dense
  • Fine-Textured
  • Thin Layer



  • Light-Colored
  • Rock Sample: Granite
  • Less Dense
  • Coarse-Textured
  • Thick Layer


Click here: Annenburg Interactive > Earth's Interior

~ The Earth's Crust ~

Continental Crust: 40 - 70 km thick / Density = 2.7 gm/cm3
Oceanic Crust: 5 km thick / Density = 3.0 gm/cm3
Upper Mantle: 660 km thick / Density = 3.3 gm/cm3

Crustal Rocks:

Granite ( Continental ) and Basalt ( Oceanic )

Lithosphere: Rigid Upper Mantle and Lower Crust

Aesthenosphere: Soft, Flowing Middle to Upper Mantle

Moho: Transition between the Crust and Mantle

The Mohorovicic Discontinuity

Click here: Andrija Mohorovicic

~ Magma vs. Lava ~

Magma: Molten (Melted) Rock that is UNDERGROUND

Lava: Molten (Melted) Magma that has Reached the SURFACE of the Earth

FYI: Volcanoes bring magma from the mantle to the surface.

Geothermal Energy:

Harnessing Heat from the Earth

Question: How does Earth's temperature change as depth increases?

Above and Below: Geothermal Energy Power Plant

Click here: Geothermal Energy / Learn More

~ Plasticity in the Mantle ~


( the ability of a solid to flow like a liquid )


( an internal property of a fluid that offers a resistance to flow )

Non-Newtonian Fluid:

( a fluid that experiences a rise in viscosity when pressure is applied )

Click here: Seussville / Oobleck / Other Slimy Recipes

Click here: Pool of Oobleck / Ellen Pool / Mythbusters / Creeping Oobleck

Oobleck simulates "Plasticity" in the Mantle:

* Under Conditions of High Temperature ~~~> flowing liquid

* Under Conditions of High Pressure ===> rigid solid

Oobleck Recipe: 3 cups Corn Starch + 1 cup Water

(optional: food coloring)


Oobleck Rules and Regulations:

1. Do NOT get any oobleck on the floor, chairs or clothing.

2. Do NOT let the oobleck go past your wrist when handling it.

3. Do NOT throw oobleck through the air.

4. Do NOT taste/eat the oobleck.




Oobleck Ingredients:

Corn Starch and Water

Click here: What is Cornstarch?

1. Pour a large Oobleck "pancake" onto the tabletop in front of you.

2. Quickly "slap" the top surface of the Oobleck to see if it splashes.

3. Push your index finger through the pancake very slowly, with light pressure.

4. Push your index finger through the pancake very quickly like a bulldozer, with a lot of pressure.

5. Rub your hand over the Oobleck pancake in a circular pattern as if you are "polishing" the surface.

>> Then...suddenly STOP moving your hand when it is in the center of the Oobleck pancake, and let your hand sink down into the Oobleck.

6. Breathe on your hand in front of your face to feel the warmth of your breath.

>> Then, breathe onto the top surface of the Oobleck.

>> Now, blow onto the top of the Oobleck to try to create ripples on the surface.

7. Pick up the pancake of Oobleck off the tabletop and place it into the cupped palm of your hand.

>> Be sure to separate your fingers apart, and let the Oobleck drip through your fingers onto the tabletop.

8. Pick up the pancake of Oobleck again, and this time form it into a ball by passing it back and forth between your two hands. Then, let the ball drop onto the tabletop and watch it ooze back into a flat pancake puddle.

9. Pick up a small marble sized piece of Oobleck, and press it firmly between your thumb and index finger, then release your fingers, then press, then release.

10. Pick up some Oobleck, and rapidly squeeze it between your fist, then release, then squeeze and release, squeeze and release.

11. Pick up some Oobleck and form a ball, then grab it between your two hands, then rapidly "rip" it apart into two pieces.

12. To clean up, wash your hands in the BUCKET at the first sink station.

>> Then, give your hands a final rinse at the second sink.


How does Oobleck behave under conditions of:

A. Low Pressure

B. High Pressure

C. Low Temperature

D. High Temperature


~ Convection Currents in the Mantle ~

Hot matter rises, then cools and sinks.

Peace, Love and Lava Lamps:

Click Here: Groovy Lava Lamp Video

Click Here: Make your own Lava Lamp / How a Convection Lamp Works

Click here: Mantle Convection Video Clips / Video / Fishtank Convection

Q: What is the source of movement in the Earth's crust?

A: Convection Currents in the Mantle.

The Core:

Inner Core = SOLID

Outer Core = LIQUID

~The Core is made of Iron and Nickel~



  • Symbol (Fe)
  • Magnetic Metal
  • Used in making steel
  • Atomic Number: 26
  • Forms Rust: (Fe2O3)
  • Learn more: Iron

Iron Filings




  • Symbol (Ni)
  • Magnetic Metal
  • Used in making steel
  • Atomic Number: 28
  • Used in batteries
  • Learn more: Nickel

Nickel Filings

Below: Bad Sci-Fi

Click here: Magnetism

FYI: Earth's magnetic pole is 11.5 degrees off from Earth's axis of rotation.

Geographic Pole - The Rotational Point of Earth's Axis

Magnetic Pole - The place where Earth's Magnetic Field lines converge

Below: Antarctica and the South Poles

Below: True Geographic South Pole Sign

(First explored by Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott)

Geographic North and South Pole vs. Magnetic North and South Pole:



Below: 2,000 Years of Earth's Wandering Magnetic North Pole

(Greenland, Canada, Siberia, Russia, Arctic Ocean)

Below: Earth's Wandering Magnetic South Pole (Antarctica)

~ Investigating the Inside of the Earth ~



Fun Fact:

  • Scientists have only drilled 14.16 kilometers (8.8 miles) into the Earth.

Learn More: Deepest Hole / Gravity Express Train / Superdeep Borehole



The Earth's Interior

Question: How do people know what the core and mantle are like... if we have never drilled down that deep?

Answer: Direct evidence from rock samples and indirect evidence from seismic (earthquake) waves.

Click here: Earth's Interior

Inge Lehman: Discoverer of the Earth's Core


~ Journey to the Center of the Earth ~

(A great idea: Watch this film for extra credit.)


Classic Fiction Novel by Jules Verne


Original Film (1959):


Another Version of the Film (1989):

A Modern Remake of the Film in 3-D (2008):


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