~ Useful Links ~




~ Volcanoes: Part I ~

Bill Nycano

Deadliest Eruptions

(( Active - Dormant - Extinct ))

Global Volcanism Program / Volcano Under the City

Top Ten List-Worst Volcanoes in History / Volcano Fun Facts

Discovery Channel Super Volcano / USGS Volcano / NOVA Volcano

Virtual Build-a-Volcano / The Volcano Maker / Volcano Videos / Volcano Hazards

(Did you know: There are approximately 550 active volcanoes on Earth today.)

~ Volcano Terminology ~

Active: A volcano that will likely erupt again in the future.

Dormant: A "sleeping" volcano that may erupt again.

Extinct: A volcano that will never erupt again.

>> Magma Chamber, Crater, Vent, Cone, Bomb, Pyroclastic Flow, Ash Cloud <<

>> Acid Rain, Cinders, Lahar, Landslide, Sill, Dike, Dome, Tephra, Lava Flow <<

~ Types of Volcanoes ~

Types of Volcanoes / Composite & Cinder Cone & Shield / A-Z List of Volcanoes


~ 4 Types of Volcanoes ~

1. Hot Spot Caldera Volcanoes:

( the most violent and explosive eruption style )

Caldera / Yellowstone / Yellowstone Supervolcano

Super Volcano - Discovery / Sci Show does Yellowstone

Above: Yellowstone National Park Caldera Eruption (simulated)

Hot Spot Caldera: Megasupervolcano!

Yellowstone National Park Caldera

"I don't know where I'm a gonna go...when the volcano blow." - Jimmy Buffett

2. Shield Volcanoes:

( Kilauea in Hawaii is the #1 most active shield volcano in the world )

Anatomy of a Shield Volcano: Quiet "Hawaiian Style" Eruption

Can you notice the profile of an upsidedown warrior's shield?

Below: Mount Kilauea, Hawaii

Shield Volcanoes

Question: What is the biggest (shield) volcano in our Solar System?

Answer: Olympus Mons (on planet Mars)

Above and Below: Olympus Mons shown with Mount Everest and Mauna Kea (for scale)

3. Cinder Cone Volcanoes:

( most abundant type of volcano in the world / least deadly & destrucive type of volcano )

Cinder Cone Volcanoes

Ejecta: Bombs, Blocks, Cinders, Clinkers, Glass (obsidian), Pumice and Ash

Obsidian (black volcanic glass) and Pumice (only rock that floats on water)

Lava Soap >>> "Pumice Powered"

Abrasive Super Soap packed with PUMICE (volcanic ash rock).

Lava Soap: NOT suitable for small children...just ask Ms. Kaiter.

Cinder Cone volcanoes look a little like ice cream cones.

What is your favorite flavor of cinder cone?

4. Composite (Strato) Volcanoes:

( most violent and deadly mountain style volcano / has all eruption hazards )

Most Stratovolcanoes are so high in elevation, that they are snow-capped.

Stomboli (below) Stratovolcano in Italy is the #1 most active volcano on Earth.

Composite Stratovolcanoes erupt with both lava and ash.

Composite (Strato) Volcanoes

Above: Volcano Project Eruption Supplies

Types of Volcanic Eruptions:

Strombolian, Plinian, Hawaiian, Pelean, Vulcanian

Mmm... Lava Cake.

~ Types of Lava ~

Above: Lava Arch

Hot - Hot - Hot

Lava Meets Ocean...Sizzle & Steam!

Pahoehoe (Ropey) Lava

Pahoehoe Lava:

(non-viscous, fast-moving, ropey texture)

Tongue Twister: Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe.

Lavaboarding anyone?

Notice the difference between the Aa and Pahoehoe lava below:

Aa lava is viscous, jagged and chunky and moves very sloooowly.

Above and Below: Aa Lava

Would you like to sleep on the pillow below?

Pillow Lava Video

Pillow lava cools underwater like toothpaste being squeezed out of its tube.

More pillow lava pillows...

~ Volcanic Features and Hazards ~

Gas Belches from the Lava Tube

Lightning and thunder during the Chaiten Volcanic Eruption in Chile above.

Lightning during the Eyjafjallajokull Volcanic Eruption in Iceland below.

Pyroclastic Flow (below): ash and cinders travelling at 80-200 miles per hour...

...plus toxic gases that are 200 hundred degrees or hotter!!!

Pyroclastic Flow Animation

Above and Below: Pyroclastic Flow...Look Out!

Volcano Hazards

Pyro = "fire" + Clastic = "rock" >>> Fire-Rock

Volcanic Pyroclastic Flow induced Landslide >>> Tsunami Alert

Tsunami / Images / Volcanic Sea Waves / Kaiter's Tsunami Info Page

Painting by Katsushika Hokusai - Tsunami with Mount Fuji, Japan

Below: a megatsunami waiting to happen...

...in the Atlantic Ocean.

Cumbre Vieja Volcano on La Palma Island (Canary Islands)

Eruption triggered landslide into the Atlantic Ocean...

...and subsequent megatsunami along the east coast of the Americas.

Lahar >>> Mud Avalanche

Lahar: slurry of melted snow, ash, rocks and debris

Above: Lahar, Columbia, South America

Above and Below: Fire Fountains

Fire fountains are best observed at night.

Fountains of Fire...

Above: Eruption of Heimaey showing a "Fire Fountain" - Iceland, 1973