~ Volcanoes: Part I ~
(( Active - Dormant - Extinct ))
Global Volcanism Program / Volcano Under the City
Top Ten List-Worst Volcanoes in History / Volcano Fun Facts
Discovery Channel Super Volcano / USGS Volcano / NOVA Volcano
Virtual Build-a-Volcano / The Volcano Maker / Volcano Videos / Volcano Hazards
(Did you know: There are approximately 550 active volcanoes on Earth today.)
~ Volcano Terminology ~
Active: A volcano that will likely erupt again in the future.
Dormant: A "sleeping" volcano that may erupt again.
Extinct: A volcano that will never erupt again.
>> Magma Chamber, Crater, Vent, Cone, Bomb, Pyroclastic Flow, Ash Cloud <<
>> Acid Rain, Cinders, Lahar, Landslide, Sill, Dike, Dome, Tephra, Lava Flow <<
~ Types of Volcanoes ~
Types of Volcanoes / Composite & Cinder Cone & Shield / A-Z List of Volcanoes
~ 4 Types of Volcanoes ~
1. Hot Spot Caldera Volcanoes:
( the most violent and explosive eruption style )
Caldera / Yellowstone / Yellowstone Supervolcano
Super Volcano - Discovery / Sci Show does Yellowstone
Above: Yellowstone National Park Caldera Eruption (simulated)
Hot Spot Caldera: Megasupervolcano!
Yellowstone National Park Caldera
"I don't know where I'm a gonna go...when the volcano blow." - Jimmy Buffett
2. Shield Volcanoes:
( Kilauea in Hawaii is the #1 most active shield volcano in the world )
Anatomy of a Shield Volcano: Quiet "Hawaiian Style" Eruption
Can you notice the profile of an upsidedown warrior's shield?
Below: Mount Kilauea, Hawaii
Question: What is the biggest (shield) volcano in our Solar System?
Answer: Olympus Mons (on planet Mars)
Above and Below: Olympus Mons shown with Mount Everest and Mauna Kea (for scale)
3. Cinder Cone Volcanoes:
( most abundant type of volcano in the world / least deadly & destrucive type of volcano )
Cinder Cone Volcanoes
Ejecta: Bombs, Blocks, Cinders, Clinkers, Glass (obsidian), Pumice and Ash
Obsidian (black volcanic glass) and Pumice (only rock that floats on water)
Lava Soap >>> "Pumice Powered"
Abrasive Super Soap packed with PUMICE (volcanic ash rock).
Lava Soap: NOT suitable for small children...just ask Ms. Kaiter.
Cinder Cone volcanoes look a little like ice cream cones.
What is your favorite flavor of cinder cone?
4. Composite (Strato) Volcanoes:
( most violent and deadly mountain style volcano / has all eruption hazards )
Most Stratovolcanoes are so high in elevation, that they are snow-capped.
Stomboli (below) Stratovolcano in Italy is the #1 most active volcano on Earth.
Composite Stratovolcanoes erupt with both lava and ash.
Composite (Strato) Volcanoes
Above: Volcano Project Eruption Supplies
Types of Volcanic Eruptions:
Strombolian, Plinian, Hawaiian, Pelean, Vulcanian
Mmm... Lava Cake.
~ Types of Lava ~
Above: Lava Arch
Hot - Hot - Hot
Lava Meets Ocean...Sizzle & Steam!
Pahoehoe (Ropey) Lava
(non-viscous, fast-moving, ropey texture)
Tongue Twister: Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe, Pahoehoe.
Notice the difference between the Aa and Pahoehoe lava below:
Aa lava is viscous, jagged and chunky and moves very sloooowly.
Above and Below: Aa Lava
Would you like to sleep on the pillow below?
Pillow Lava Video
Pillow lava cools underwater like toothpaste being squeezed out of its tube.
More pillow lava pillows...
~ Volcanic Features and Hazards ~
Gas Belches from the Lava Tube
Lightning and thunder during the Chaiten Volcanic Eruption in Chile above.
Lightning during the Eyjafjallajokull Volcanic Eruption in Iceland below.
Pyroclastic Flow (below): ash and cinders travelling at 80-200 miles per hour...
...plus toxic gases that are 200 hundred degrees or hotter!!!
Pyroclastic Flow Animation
Above and Below: Pyroclastic Flow...Look Out!
Pyro = "fire" + Clastic = "rock" >>> Fire-Rock
Volcanic Pyroclastic Flow induced Landslide >>> Tsunami Alert
Tsunami / Images / Volcanic Sea Waves / Kaiter's Tsunami Info Page
Painting by Katsushika Hokusai - Tsunami with Mount Fuji, Japan
Lahar >>> Mud Avalanche
Lahar: slurry of melted snow, ash, rocks and debris
Above: Lahar, Columbia, South America
Above and Below: Fire Fountains
Fire fountains are best observed at night.
Fountains of Fire...
Above: Eruption of Heimaey showing a "Fire Fountain" - Iceland, 1973