~ Useful Link ~




~Photo Credits~

clip art:








~ Weathering, Erosion, Deposition ~

~ Weathering ~

Learn about Weathering

Weathering - Interactive

Statue showing evidence of weathering

Weathering is the on-site break down of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces.


Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
  • pressure / stress release
  • abrasion by wind, water or human activity
  • gravity / mass wasting
  • exfoliation / temp. change
  • frost action (ice wedging)
  • biological: root pry, animal burrows
  • organic acids (moss, lichen or pine needles)
  • carbonation (CO2 + H2O )
  • hydrolysis (ion dissolving)
  • solution (acid rain)
  • hydration (water reactions)
  • oxidation (metal and oxygen)

Physical vs. Chemical Weathering

~ Chemical Weathering ~

Chemical Weathering / Animations

Oxidation: The Chemistry of Rust

Iron (Fe) and Oxygen (O2) forms Rust (Fe2O3) Iron Oxide

The Statue of Liberty / Copper Oxide - Green Patina / Restoration / Copper Pennies / Cent Percent

Florida Sinkholes: Limestone Collapse / Diagram / Karst Topography / Movies

Carbonated Beverages contain Carbonic Acid

Carbonation Reaction / Make a Cave / Limestone Dissolves / Concrete

Water + Carbon Dioxide

produces Carbonic Acid


Calcium Carbonate (Limestone) + Carbonic Acid

produces Calcium Ion + Bicarbonate Ion + Water



H2O + CO2 --> H2CO3


CaCO3 + H2CO3 --> Ca + HCO3 + H2O

Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) dissolves Shell, Bone and Limestone (CaCO3) Calcium Carbonate

The pH Scale / Acids and Bases

Mid-West Coal-Burning Factory Map / SOx (sulfuric acid) and NOx (nitric acid)

Acid Rain Lab / Acid in Mass.

Acid Rain Damage to Structures

~ Physical (Mechanical) Weathering ~

Physical Weathering / Slide Show

Natural Wonder Vanishes Overnight / Gravity: Mass Wasting

The (former) Old Man on the Mountain

Root Pry / Exfoliation - Temp. Change Expansion and Contraction

CSI: Cemetery Scene Investigation

Ice Wedging Animation / Surface Area Animation

~ Erosion ~

Learn about Erosion / Images

Facts About Soil Erosion / Soil Profile

O: Organic / A: Humus / B: Clay Layer / C: Parent Bedrock

Soil Slumping - Gully Erosion / Potholes / Frost Heaves

Landslide / Diagram


...is the process by which the rocks and minerals on the surface of the earth get worn down and are transported to different locations by ocean currents, wind, water, gravity or by living organisms.


Below: Map of Cape Cod and the Islands

Protect the Coastal Beaches from Erosion

Coastal Erosion / Cape Cod / Image

The Dunes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket


What is Erosion / Lab Activity / Animation

Animation: Evolution of a Meandering Stream

Rivers / From Source to Mouth / Watershed / Mass. Rivers

Oxbow Lake Image

Formation of an Oxbow Lake

~ Deposition ~

Learn about Deposition / Aluvial Fan - Gravity Deposition

Sand Dune - Wind Deposition

Deposition is the geological process whereby rocks and mineral sediments are added to a landform by wind, water, ice, gravity or by chemical processes.


Blue Nile Lotus Flower
The Nile River Delta, Egypt
Blue Nile Lotus Cup

Sediment is Transported from Inland Mountains and is Deposited at the Sea

River Delta - Water Deposition

Cross-Bedding - Wind Deposition

Chemical Deposition - Stalactites and Stalagmites / Limestone Cavern Geology

Spelunking: Exploring Caves / Local Caving Club

Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico

The Great Stalacpipe Organ

Ice Cave